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[名师建筑] 阿塞拜疆阿利耶夫文化中心(Heydar Aliyev Centre)扎哈·哈迪德建筑设计案例

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逄天柏 发表于 2017-2-18 15:57:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式 打印 上一主题 下一主题
 
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        项目档案:
建筑设计:Zaha Hadid Architects
项目名称:Heydar Aliyev Centre
主要建筑师:扎哈·哈迪德;Patrik Schumacher;Saffet Kaya Bekiroglu
设计团队: Sara Sheikh Akbari, Shiqi Li, Phil Soo Kim, Marc Boles, Yelda Gin, Liat Muller, Deniz Manisali, Lillie Liu, Jose Lemos, Simone Fuchs, Jose Ramon Tramoyeres, Yu Du, Tahmina Parvin, Erhan Patat, Fadi Mansour, Jaime Bartolome, Josef Glas, Michael Grau, Deepti Zachariah, Ceyhun Baskin, Daniel Widrig<br />
Special thanks to Charles Walker
地址:Baku, Azerbaijan 阿塞拜疆共和国,巴库
项目时间:2007 - 2012 (已建成)
获奖情况: 伦敦设计博物馆‘年度设计大奖’
基地面积Site: 111,292平方米
总建筑面积: 57,519平方米
占地面积Footprint:15,514平方米
项目简介:
阿利耶夫文化中心位于阿塞拜疆共和国首都巴库,这一哈迪德的最新力作无疑成为了当地的城市新地标。整个设计包括一个博物馆、一个图书馆和一个可容纳1000人的会议中心。这一综合性项目围绕中央广场将这一区域的住宅区、办公商业区和酒店等设施统一起来。相关政府表示:我们并不期望通过模仿或是复原历史而将城市与过去进行有机联系,而是要通过一个极具现代感的建筑设计重新解读历史在这个城市当下的意义。在阿塞拜疆现任总统伊尔哈姆·阿利耶夫的主持下,文化中心在2012年5月10日举行了预开幕典礼。创新的前沿设计,使它成为巴库的现代化进程地标,并蛮声国际。
这座流线型的建筑不断从地面向上延伸,曲线形的外观表皮将建筑各空间的功能区有效分割并很好地保留了其各自的私密性。另外,这一流线型和实际由地形自然延伸堆叠而出,并盘卷出各个独立功能区域。所有功能区域以及出入口均在单一、连续的建筑物表面,由不同的褶皱堆叠呈现。这种流线的堆叠有机地连接了各个独立功能区,并与此同时,不同的褶皱形状也赋予每个功能区以高度的视觉识别性和空间区隔性。博物馆的内部设计同时也与外部景观环境相呼应,为参观者提供相对开阔的参观视野。玻璃幕墙表皮给室内空间带来了充足的自然光。朝向北面的图书馆区域可以有效的控制自然光照射。一系列坡道设计连接了室内各个区域空间,并形成了一个连续的交通回路;空中通道连接了图书馆和会议中心。除此之外,设计师还在新广场上设计了一个公共论坛区域,作为整个文化中心的延伸。(本段文字:DL國際新銳設計)
创作背景:
阿塞拜疆共和国,位于亚洲西部外高加索的东南部,东临里海,南邻伊朗,北靠俄罗斯,东部与哈萨克斯坦、土库曼斯坦隔海相望西接格鲁吉亚和亚美尼亚。湖岸线长800千米。其西南部的纳希切万隔亚美尼亚与本土不相毗连。在苏联时期,阿塞拜疆和俄罗斯是仅有的两个不需要中央财政补贴的共和国,也是前苏联地区的第四大经济体。1991年独立后,从综合国力看,阿塞拜疆在中亚五国加外高加索三国中,实力仅次于哈萨克斯坦和乌兹别克斯坦居第三位。为了摆脱前苏联式规范化的建筑设计风格,政府决定以极具现代感的设计对首都建筑进行彻底改造。
于是政府每年拨60亿美金作为公建费用。在此项目中赋予哈迪德以罕见的创作自由度,保证任何外部因素都不会左右她的设计,并寄希望这个建筑能够成为巴库的文化中心,真正为国家民族发展起到促进作用。(本段文字:DL國際新銳設計等)
设计理念:
盖达尔·阿利耶夫文化中心是一个建筑和广场连续融为一体的流线形整体规划,并成为城市肌理中不可分布的一部分,且重新定义了公共空间和节日集会空间的序列。那些精心设计的起伏,分叉,褶皱还有形态都让广场展现出热情开放拥抱城市的姿态。建筑也模糊了传统建筑与城市,与广场,与地面之间的分化。
整体流动性的灵感不仅是全新的,也从当地的传统而来。伊斯兰历史悠久的建筑,书法,天花,壁画,装饰,艺术花纹的无缝连接,整体统一都给了设计灵感。建筑师在了解历史与传统的基础上,绝不模仿和使用意向,坚持在高层次发挥,通过现代的方式回应场地和各种条件。对于场地上的坡段用一个美丽的梯田式广场化劣为优,避免了额外的挖方或填埋,建立建筑与地下停车场的关联。
在这个流体建筑项目中,建筑表皮无疑是个大挑战,建筑师通过高级计算机运算和设计以实现建筑整体而有机的表皮。
为了实现大型的无主空间,让人们体会到内部空间自由的流动性,整个建筑由两套结构系统组成:混凝土结构域空间框架系统。几何表面运用到逐渐变细的燕尾悬臂梁。空间框架系统保证了建筑的自由形态,玻璃纤维增强混凝土( GFRC )和玻璃纤维增强聚酯( GFRP )是理想的自由外饰面材料,完美的实现了广场,建筑,内部空间的过渡。
巨大开窗为文化中心带来稳定的自然光,同时保持中心与景观的呼应。建筑的外形清晰的界定了阅读资料和剧场区。室内各个空间被系列坡道联系。(中文翻译:谷德网)
推荐文档及相关资源:
【视频】阿利耶夫文化中心动画演示(一)
【视频】阿利耶夫文化中心动画演示(二)
        The design of the Heydar Aliyev Center establishes a continuous, fluid relationship between its surrounding plaza and the building’s interior. The plaza, as the ground surface; accessible to all as part of Baku’s urban fabric, rises to envelop an equally public interior space and define a sequence of event spaces dedicated to the collective celebration of contemporary and traditional Azeri culture. Elaborate formations such as undulations, bifurcations, folds, and inflections modify this plaza surface into an architectural landscape that performs a multitude of functions: welcoming, embracing, and directing visitors through different levels of the interior. With this gesture, the building blurs the conventional differentiation between architectural object and urban landscape, building envelope and urban plaza, figure and ground, interior and exterior.
Fluidity in architecture is not new to this region. In historical Islamic architecture, rows, grids, or sequences of columns flow to infinity like trees in a forest, establishing non-hierarchical space. Continuous calligraphic and ornamental patterns flow from carpets to walls, walls to ceilings, ceilings to domes, establishing seamless relationships and blurring distinctions between architectural elements and the ground they inhabit. Our intention was to relate to that historical understanding of architecture, not through the use of mimicry or a limiting adherence to the iconography of the past, but rather by developing a firmly contemporary interpretation, reflecting a more nuanced understanding.
Responding to the topographic sheer drop that formerly split the site in two, the project introduces a precisely terraced landscape that establishes alternative connections and routes between public plaza, building, and underground parking. This solution avoids additional excavation and landfill, and successfully converts an initial disadvantage of the site into a key design feature.
Geometry, structure, materiality
One of the most critical yet challenging elements of the project was the architectural development of the building’s skin. Our ambition to achieve a surface so continuous that it appears homogenous, required a broad range of different functions, construction logics and technical systems had to be brought together and integrated into the building’s envelope. Advanced computing allowed for the continuous control and communication of these complexities among the numerous project participants.
The Heydar Aliyev Center principally consists of two collaborating systems: a concrete structure combined with a space frame system. In order to achieve large-scale column-free spaces that allow the visitor to experience the fluidity of the interior, vertical structural elements are absorbed by the envelope and curtain wall system. The particular surface geometry fosters unconventional structural solutions, such as the introduction of curved ‘boot columns’ to achieve the inverse peel of the surface from the ground to the West of the building, and the ‘dovetail’ tapering of the cantilever beams that support the building envelope to the East of the site.
The space frame system enabled the construction of a free-form structure and saved significant time throughout the construction process, while the substructure was developed to incorporate a flexible relationship between the rigid grid of the space frame and the free-formed exterior cladding seams. These seams were derived from a process of rationalizing the complex geometry, usage, and aesthetics of the project. Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polyester (GFRP) were chosen as ideal cladding materials, as they allow for the powerful plasticity of the building’s design while responding to very different functional demands related to a variety of situations: plaza, transitional zones and envelope.
In this architectural composition, if the surface is the music, then the seams between the panels are the rhythm. Numerous studies were carried out on the surface geometry to rationalize the panels while maintaining continuity throughout the building and landscape. The seams promote a greater understanding of the project’s scale. They emphasize the continual transformation and implied motion of its fluid geometry, offering a pragmatic solution to practical construction issues such as manufacturing, handling, transportation and assembly; and answering technical concerns such as accommodating movement due to deflection, external loads, temperature change, seismic activity and wind loading.
To emphasize the continuous relationship between the building’s exterior and interior, the lighting of the Heydar Aliyev Center has been very carefully considered. The lighting design strategy differentiates the day and night reading of the building. During the day, the building’s volume reflects light, constantly altering the Center’s appearance according to the time of day and viewing perspective. The use of semi-reflective glass gives tantalizing glimpses within, arousing curiosity without revealing the fluid trajectory of spaces inside. At night, this character is gradually transformed by means of lighting that washes from the interior onto the exterior surfaces, unfolding the formal composition to reveal its content and maintaining the fluidity between interior and exterior.
The Heydar Aliyev Center’s design evolved from our investigations and research of the site’s topography and the Center’s role within its broader cultural landscape. By employing these articulate contextual relationships, the design is embedded within this context; unfolding the future cultural possibilities for Azerbaijan.
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