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[名师建筑] 意大利梅斯纳尔山Corones博物馆(Messner Mountain Museum Corones)扎哈·哈迪德(Zaha Hadid Architects)

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pzvhmrmwvs 发表于 2017-2-18 16:09:57 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式 打印 上一主题 下一主题
 
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        入口层平面
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        一层平面
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        二层平面
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        三层平面
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        剖面
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        立面细部
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        平台细部
        项目概况:
建筑设计:Zaha Hadid Architects
地址:意大利,南蒂罗尔(Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, Italy(
主持建筑师:扎哈·哈迪德(Zaha Hadid), Patrik Schumacher
面积:1000.0平方米
完工时间:2015
照片版权:inexhibit.com, Werner Huthmacher, Luke Hayes
项目简介:
Zaha Hadid Architects设计的意大利南蒂罗尔梅斯纳尔山Corones博物馆已经竣工,这座地理位置惊世骇俗的博物馆嵌入海拔2275米的山之巅,临近南蒂罗尔最受欢迎的滑雪胜地,在群山簇拥中俯瞰齐勒河谷。该博物馆为第六座同时也是最后一座以著名登山家莱因霍尔德·梅斯纳尔(登上珠峰第一人)的名字命名的博物馆(简称‘MMM’ corones)。博物馆旨在展示马特宏峰,Cerro Torre峰等等山脉的历史与故事以及与登山相关的文物,艺术作品。其现已向公众开放。
建筑师Zaha Hadid解释了设计理念---希望游客下到镶入山体中的博物馆,体验“洞穴”,然后到达山巅的另外一侧,在观光露台上享受山谷全景。因此,针对山谷中的美景,Zaha事务所的建筑师设置了三个不同方向的露台:第一个面朝西南望向Peitlerkofel山峰;第二朝南面对Heiligkreuzkofel山峰;第三个则朝西,可观赏Ortler和南蒂罗尔。 混凝土浇筑的博物馆完美的从岩石群中凸起探出。和山体岩石相比,博物馆那玻璃纤维增强混凝土制成的外表皮色彩稍浅,同时内部的板材因为加入煤灰色彩稍深。
游人进入博物馆需要经过一系列楼梯,下降三个台面,穿过展览空间,方才到达底层观景层,观景层的露台向外挑出6米,为游客带来240度观景视野。
这个1000平方米面积的博物馆在施工中共挖方4000立方米。最终侵入山体的博物馆内因为覆土和半地下而保持着较为恒定的内温。宽大的窗户让自然光深入室内,并为游客带来叹为观止的风景。 建筑外饰面和内部饰面几乎全部采用混凝土现浇预制板。
项目其它信息:
Gross Floor Area: 1,000m
Elevation: 2,275 m
Project Team:
Client: Skirama Kronplatz/Plan de Corones
Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects (ZHA)
Design (ZHA): Zaha Hadid, Patrik Schumacher
Project Architect (ZHA): Cornelius Schlotthauer
Design Team (ZHA): Cornelius Schlotthauer, Peter Irmscher
Execution Team (ZHA): Peter Irmscher, Markus Planteu, Claudia Wulf
Structural Engineer: IPM
Mechanical Engineer & Fire Protection: Jud & Partner
Mechanical Engineer: Studio GM
Lighting Design: Zumtobel
(本文贡献方:archdaily,gooood,archcollege;组织:图站建筑案例)
        From the architect.Embedded within the summit of Mount Kronplatz, 2,275m above sea level at the centre South Tyrol’s most popular ski resort, the Messner Mountain Museum Corones is surrounded by the alpine peaks of the Zillertal, Ortler and Dolomites. Established by renowned climber Reinhold Messner, the sixth and final Messner Mountain Museum explores the traditions, history and discipline of mountaineering.
Messner, the first person to climb all 14 mountains around the world over 8,000 meters, and the first to climb Mount Everest without the aid of tanked oxygen, conveys his vision for the MMM Corones: “Kronplatz offers views beyond the borders of South Tyrol to all points of the compass: from the Lienz Dolomites in the east to the Ortler in the west, from the Marmolada Glacier in the south to the Zillertal Alps in the north. The museum is a mirror of the world of my childhood - the Geislerspitzen, the central buttress of the Heiligkreuzkofel (the most difficult climb in my whole life) and the glaciated granite mountains of the Ahrn Valley. On Kronplatz I present the development of modern mountaineering and 250 years of progress with regard to the equipment. I speak of triumphs and tragedies on the world’s most famous peaks – the Matterhorn, Cerro Torre, K2, and shed light on alpinism with the help of relics, thoughts, works of art and by reflecting the outside mountain backcloth in the interior of MMM Corones.”
Zaha Hadid explains the concept of the design: “The idea is that visitors can descend within the mountain to explore its caverns and grottos, before emerging through the mountain wall on the other side, out onto the terrace overhanging the valley far below with spectacular, panoramic views.”
In 2003, the Concordia 2000 Peace Bell was the first cultural installation to join the sports and recreational amenities at the summit of Mount Kronplatz, which include facilities for hang-gliding and paragliding, the Kron and Gipfel Restaurants, a replica of a Native American settlement, as well as the summit stations of the Kronplatz 2000 cable-car to Riscone/Reischach, the Olang cable- car to Valdaora, and the Ruis cable-car to San Vigilio. The Mountain Museum will welcome visitors throughout the year to explore Messner’s world where humanity is pushed to its limits, adding a further cultural and educational institution to Mount Kronplatz.
Reinhold Messner’s vision for a museum of submerged into the peak of Mount Kronplatz detailed three very specific locations of where the museum should emerge from ground: “In the first, a window looking out southwest to the peak of the Peitlerkofel mountain, in the second, another window should look south toward the Heiligkreuzkofel peak, in the third, a balcony should face west to the Ortler and South Tyrol.”
Informed by the shards of rock and ice of the surrounding landscape, concrete canopies have been cast in-situ and rise from the ground to protect the museum’s entrance, viewing windows and terrace.
Reflecting the lighter colours and tones of the jagged limestone peaks of the surrounding Dolomites, the exterior panels are formed from a lighter shade of glass-reinforced fibre concrete and fold within the museum to meet the darker interior panels that have the luster and colouration of anthracite found deep below the surface.
A series of staircases, like waterfalls in a mountain stream, cascade through the museum to connect the exhibition spaces and describe visitors’ circulation over three levels. At the lowest level, visitors pass the viewing windows as they traverse through the galleries to emerge out onto the terrace that projects 6m from the mountainside giving a 240 degree panorama across the Alps.
At 1,000 square meters, the museum is arranged over several levels to reduce its footprint. During construction, 4,000 cubic meters (140,000 cubic feet) of earth and rock was excavated and then replaced above and around the completed structure - immersing the museum within Mount Kronplatz and helping to maintain a more constant internal temperature. The wide windows allow natural light to penetrate deep within the museum, drawing visitors forward through the interior to the panoramic windows and viewing terrace cantilevered over the valley far below.
Constructed from in-situ reinforced concrete, the museum‘s structure has walls between 40-50cm, while its roof supporting the replaced earth and rock that embeds the museum into the mountain, is up to 70cm thick.
The majority of the museum’s exterior and interior panels are also made from in-situ concrete, with a formwork of tapered surfaces used to generate the peaks and abutments of the exterior panels that convey the rock and ice formations of the surrounding landscape. Almost 400 internal and external panels were prefabricated, with the more complex curved elements created in a process of spraying layers of high-performance fibre-concrete into moulds carved from CNC-milled foam using the architect‘s 3D model.
A scaffold of steel sections with adjustable brackets to offset tolerances forms the museum’s substructure. Counter-plates for the connecting brackets are laminated directly within each panel during the prefabrication process.
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