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[名师建筑] 丹麦国家海事博物馆(Danish National Maritime Museum)BIG建筑设计案例

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6ii8jw1nt9 发表于 2017-2-18 16:16:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式 打印 上一主题 下一主题
 
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        项目概况:
建筑设计: BIG
地点:丹麦赫尔辛格 (Helsingor, Denmark)
主持建筑师:Bjarke Ingels, David Zahle
项目负责人:David Zahle
项目面积:17,500 平方米
时间:2013
照片版权: Rasmus Hjortshj, Thijs Wolzak, Luca Santiago Mora
项目简介:
该博物馆位于赫尔辛格,重要性在于其独特的历史环境和空间环境——这里距首都哥本哈根50公里、距著名的路易斯安那现代美术馆仅10公里,同时毗邻丹麦最重要建筑之一的克伦堡宫(Kronborg)这是联合国教科文组织UNESCO指定世界文化遗产,莎翁名剧《哈姆雷特》的故事发生地。博物馆的完工,除了将为游客和居民带来新的体验,同时博物馆也必须在众多重要建筑中证明自己的地位。博物馆以创新的形式展现历史与现代,展示了丹麦从帆船时代到现代海运的海事遗产。
建筑师没有对有着六十年历史的船坞墙(Dry dock)做任何变动,而是将展区设在了地下,展区围绕干船坞墙被设置成连续的环状(船坞墙成为中央展品),同时形成了采光大庭院和开放室外活动区,游客可以在这里体验到船舶建造的规模。
三座双层的连接桥横跨在干船坞上,不但发挥着连接城市的作用,同时还为游客参观博物馆的不同部分提供了捷径。海港大桥封闭着船坞的同时也是一个海滨长廊;博物馆礼堂作为一座桥连接着相邻的文化庭院与克伦堡宫;倾斜的之字形桥引导游客来到主入口。
这座桥将新与旧连在一起,游客向下进入博物馆空间时将体验到新与旧的融合,在这里可以看到地上地下宏伟的环境。丹麦海事光辉悠久的历史连续地展示在位于地下七米的船坞内及其周围。将展览空间与礼堂、教室、办公室、咖啡厅和博物馆内船坞楼连在一起的所有楼层都呈现出缓坡的形式,创造出令人兴奋的、极具雕塑感的空间。
BIG创始人Bjarke Ingels提到:原有的旧码头成为新博物馆的中心庭院,在保留其的过程中,其也成为了日光和空气的交换口。这样的处理,也尊重了附近的克伦堡宫。我们设计了强大而具有吸引力的公共空间,博物馆即便在地面上看不见也能吸引游客。设计中多处也借鉴了航海船的要素,让人们在浏览的过程中可以感受,发掘,破解海事无处不在的魅力。内部现代化多媒体的展览形式让人们从对航海的想象开始了解丹麦航海历史和航海与当今港口,海运,战争,贸易的关联。
该项目负责人David Zahle提到:建立一个低于海平面的现代化博物馆在丹麦是前所未有的,这五年,我们一直在为之努力,与考古专业和飞船设计师齐心协力对古老的混凝土基座进行改造,原有1.5米厚的墙壁和2.5米厚的地板被切开,焕然一新成为一个现代化的静谧博物馆。建筑中运用到的大型钢梁从中国生产,经由赫尔辛基运到丹麦,因为每条大钢梁重达100吨,所以在项目中还是用到了北欧最大的移动式起重机。在这个团队中完成这样的项目,是一件非常值得自豪的事情。
(本文贡献方:archdaily,archgo,gooood,archicake daily(台);组织:图站建筑案例)
        From the architect. The Danish Maritime Museum had to find its place in a unique historic and spatial context; between one of Denmark’s most important and famous buildings and a new, ambitious cultural centre. This is the context in which the museum has proven itself with an understanding of the character of the region and especially the Kronborg Castle. Like a subterranean museum in a dry dock.
Leaving the 60 year old dock walls untouched, the galleries are placed below ground and arranged in a continuous loop around the dry dock walls - making the dock the centerpiece of the exhibition - an open, outdoor area where visitors experience the scale of ship building.
A series of three double-level bridges span the dry dock, serving both as an urban connection, as well as providing visitors with short-cuts to different sections of the museum. The harbor bridge closes off the dock while serving as harbor promenade; the museum’s auditorium serves as a bridge connecting the adjacent Culture Yard with the Kronborg Castle; and the sloping zig-zag bridge navigates visitors to the main entrance.
This bridge unites the old and new as the visitors descend into the museum space overlooking the majestic surroundings above and below ground. The long and noble history of the Danish Maritime unfolds in a continuous motion within and around the dock, 7 meters (23 ft.) below the ground. All floors - connecting exhibition spaces with the auditorium, classroom, offices, café and the dock floor within the museum - slope gently creating exciting and sculptural spaces.
Bjarke Ingels: “By wrapping the old dock with the museum program we simultaneouslypreserve the heritage structure while transforming it to a courtyard bringing daylight andair in to the heart of the submerged museum. Turning the dock inside out resolved a bigdilemma: Out of respect for Hamlet\'s Castle we needed to remain completely invisibleand underground – but to be able to attract visitors we needed a strong public presence.Leaving the dock as an urban abyss provides the museum with an interior faade facingthe void and at the same time offers the citizens of Helsingr a new public space sunken8 m (16 ft.) below the level of the sea.”
David Zahle, Partner-in-Charge: ”For 5 years we have been working on transforming the old concrete dock into a modern museum, which required an archaeologist care and spacecraft designer\'s technical skills. The old lady is both fragile and tough; the new bridges are light and elegant. Building a museum below sea level has taken construction techniques never used in Denmark before. The old concrete dock with its 1.5 m thick walls and 2.5 m thick floor has been cut open and reassembled as a modern and precise museum facility. The steel bridges were produced in giant sections on a Chinese steel wharf and transported to Denmark on the biggest ship that has ever docked in Helsingr. The steel sections weigh up to 100 tons a piece and are lifted on site by the two largest mobile cranes in northern Europe. I am truly proud of the work our team has carried out on this project and of the final result."
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